The AC joint connects the collar bone (clavicle) to the shoulder blade (scapula). This joint can get injured in fall or forceful motion to the shoulder. Patients typically complain of pain on top of the shoulder and may notice a step-off where the injury occurred.
The shoulder joint is enveloped by a layer of tissue called the capsule. This capsule protects and controls the shoulder’s motion. In some patients, especially diabetics, the capsule may thicken and become less compliant. This results in the condition known as frozen shoulder.
One of the tendons that is often overlooked as a source of pain on the anterior (front) part of the shoulder is the biceps tendon. The biceps muscle is the large muscle on the front part of the arm that we use to flex up the elbow and rotate the forearm.
An open Latarjet surgery results when a patient has undergone a previous shoulder stabilization surgery that has failed or has instability in the setting of bone loss. In this type of procedure, the coracoid process (a small hook-like structure on the front part of the scapula) is moved downward to the neck of the scapula.
Shoulder impingement occurs when there is compression of the soft tissues around the rotator cuff when the arm is moved in certain motions. If the space between the rotator cuff and the bony roof (acromion) decreases, patients can have symptoms related to impingement.
The shoulder is the most mobile joint in the body. It consists of a ball known as the humeral head (the top part of the arm bone) and a socket known as the glenoid (a part of the shoulder blade). Since the shoulder allows motion in all directions, the socket part of the joint needs to be very shallow to allow that motion.
Shoulder instability can occur for a few different reasons. One cause of shoulder instability is a traumatic event causing the shoulder to dislocate, which may occur while playing high intensity contact sports or even with a fall. If the shoulder doesn’t heal properly, this can cause repeated instability events to occur.
There are many reasons that patients can have persistent pain after a previous surgery. The decision to undergo a revision (or repeat) surgery for the same shoulder or problem is a hard and complex decision.
Patients who have had shoulder replacement or rotator cuff surgery who are still in pain and have limited mobility may be a candidate for a reverse total shoulder replacement.
Rotator cuff injuries are a result of tendon damage in the shoulder. There are a number of different ways in which these types of injuries can occur, including normal wear and tear as well as overuse due to athletics or accidental overextension.
Two types of arthritis can be seen in the shoulder complex. The first type is Osteoarthritis (OA) is the typical “wear-and-tear” arthritis, which can present at any age but typically appears in later life. The second type of arthritis is the inflammatory arthritis. This arthritis affects patients at an earlier age.
Shoulder dislocation occurs when a forceful movement is applied to the shoulder which overcomes the blocking effect of the cartilage rim and the ligaments and muscles surrounding the shoulder.
The front part of the rotator cuff is known as the subscapularis, which can be very painful, in terms of the function of the shoulder, if torn. This tendon is typically torn in individuals between the ages of thirty and fifty that have some sort of traumatic injury.